The thyroid is a gland, which is located at the base of the neck and in front of the trachea. It has two sides and a butterfly shape.

The main function of the thyroid gland is to maintain a steady rhythm in the metabolism, this means that it should not go neither very fast nor very slow.

The thyroid is controlled by the pituitary gland, this gland makes the hormone that stimulates the thyroid (TSH).

There are two types of thyroid diseases: Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

Hypothyroidism refers to when there is thyroid hormone deficiency in the blood, which slows down the rate of metabolism in the body.

Hyperthyroidism is so named because of excess thyroid hormone, which increases the rate of metabolism.

To make the diagnosis of the thyroid it is necessary to do an examination and some tests.

Your doctor can order:

Clinical laboratory tests.
Thyroid Ultrasound.
Thyroid scan: In this study you may be asked to take a small amount of radioactive iodine, so that you can detect areas that are deficient or in excess. This test should not be done in patients with pregnancy.

Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland decreases the production of thyroid hormone, thus minimizing the rate of metabolism.

The gland becomes inflamed because the body’s natural defense system confuses the cells of the thyroid gland and treats them as if they were harmful invaders. When hypothyroidism occurs an enlargement occurs in the thyroid which is known as goiter.

Hypothyroidism can occur due to iodine deficiency, there are foods, in addition to iodized salt, in which iodine is found such as shrimp, spinach, oysters and lobster.


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Symptoms can take years to appear, some symptoms are:

Exhaustion or weakness.
Weight gain.
Lack of hunger.
Irregularities in menstrual periods.
Lack of sexual appetite.
Feeling of cold even when the weather does not deserve it.
Pain in the muscles.
Swelling around the eyes.
Brittle nails.
Hair loss.

Before and After